Before you read this essay, I want to issue a general warning. I laughed when Severus Snape zinged Hermione about her teeth. Now you know where my loyalties lie. That said, this writer is not about to pass judgement on a character without analyzing his motivation, actions and attributes in the context of his archetype; I can be ruthless in my dissection.
Severus Snape has been the subject of various discussions in the Leaky Lounge forums that go nowhere and answer nothing. Questions about his loyalty, his motives, his morality, his actions and his role in the Potter Saga whirl about like debris in a tornado of confusion. Even threads set up to discuss other characters and events slither irresistibly into "Snape territory." What is it about Severus Snape that fascinates? Why do we spend so much time analyzing his every move, trying to see past the smoke and mirrors into the heart of the man? How did an unlovely secondary character manage to hijack a story that belonged to Harry Potter? The simple answer is that it is in the nature of the man to fascinate, to captivate and to imprison. His ilk has been doing the same thing for a very long time. Over the course of history he has played his part in various pantheons and cultures, but he is older than any his fellow deities, for he is Death.
Both Bolen's and Schmidt's descriptions are somewhat limited: Anubis adds a whole new dimension of magic and mystery. To the best of my knowledge, the only other writer who uses the term Anubis archetype is Terence DuQuesne in his work Jackal at the Shaman's Gate. His goal was to show the role of Anubis in Egyptian religion; however, the theme can be expanded to create a new view of what Bolen calls the Hades archetype,1 and Schmidt refers to as the Recluse/Warlock character.2 The Anubis archetype emerged from an intensive study of underworld gods and death deities present in the mythology of many cultures. This "Grim Reaper" stereotype is the scaffold on which a character like Severus Snape may be assembled; however, Snape not only embodies the archetype, he actually serves as a personification of death in the Potterverse. It then follows that understanding the model of the death gods and analyzing their purpose in mythology could be the guide to an understanding an ambiguous character like Severus Snape.
Overview of the Archetype
By Anubis they understand the horizontal circle, which divides the invisible, to which they give the name Isis; and this circle equally touches upon the confines of both light and darkness
Anubis is the jackal-headed god of the underworld in Egyptian mythology. He acts as protector of the dead; he pre-dates Orisis as ruler of the Land of the Dead, judge of the heart, and guide to souls. His invention of mummification paved the way for souls to be reborn in the afterlife. A stern, pitiless god, robed in black, he is also the personification of death in the Egyptian mind.3 He is Anpu, he who opens the doors to the North, and it is this function that ties him to the precursor god Anup, who is a form of the Chaos god Set.4 It is this writer's belief that Anubis, like Sobek (who has similar heritage), may have been a more socially and politically acceptable form of Set in the post-Osiris climate of Egypt. In the world of the living, Anubis is patron of mummification, potions, medicine and surgery, and aspects of divination. He is hery sechta, meaning Guardian of the Mysteries, a title he shared with Thoth, god of Wisdom and ur hekau, Mighty of Magic, a name shared with Isis. A powerful force in the afterlife where he is a guide to the deceased and examiner of the soul, Anubis is more reserved in the living realm, an unwelcome visitor in the form of death.
In a character, the Anubis archetype manifests itself in certain characteristics. Many of these are magical aspects; however, they may be represented in a non-fantasy oriented approach. All the characteristics mentioned come from mythology; not only from that of Anubis, but from a list of death deities, lords of the underworld, otherworld gods, death personifications and death angels researched to present the clearest picture of what this character would look like. For interested parties the list with links and resources is available, but the compilation is beyond the scope of this essay. I would also encourage any reader who wishes to delve deeply into this archetype to read Gods in Everyman, by Jean Shinoda Bolen. Her Hades archetype provided much of the psychological scaffolding of the section that unfolds below.5
From the beginning, the Anubis archetype is intensely introverted. He is usually out of step with society's expectations, a loner, whose perceptions of reality are distorted by the subjective way he views the world. As a child there is something that marks him as different. He cries often and reacts unexpectedly. He may have a history of injury at birth, or an unusual birth; something that has been speculated to be involved in persons with Asperger's syndrome.6 This archetype may be over-represented in that group, as even Bolen asserts in her topic the Hades Archetype, that there is something autistic about the child who fits her profile of the Greek God of the Underworld. He is often highly intelligent, and over-sensitive. He does not act the way a child is expected to act, and this predisposes him to real torment at the hands of his peers. There may be a sense that he is an old soul in a young body. He is imaginative and plays well by himself. Even at an early age he seems independent and prefers to be alone. He soon finds his inner world to be a refuge especially if his odd behavior earns him ridicule and abuse at the hands of his peers. He does not start out as reclusive or aloof, but will become so with age. He learns to avoid pain by cutting off his emotions, which he never fully recognized in the first place, as emotions to him are visceral sensations and occasionally produce visual hallucinations that may frighten him. He may not learn to equate the sensations with the corresponding emotion in himself and as he ages this problem contributes to a lack of empathy. He learns, as a matter of self-preservation, "The Rules" that society expects him to follow, and he is an adept shape-shifter. He is also likely to hold everyone else around him to these rules. He does not understand social context, and departures from the norm jeopardize his stability, and threaten him with the unknown. Even if he adapts well he will never be at ease in social settings. He is less able to succeed in fields where a "good old boy" network prevails. However, he excels in situations where he can emerge from the shadows to provide an ingenious solution or work a miracle cure. He may gravitate to careers that give him this advantage: medicine, mathematics, engineering, and psychology.
From a fantasy standpoint expect this character to have magic that is significantly different from his supporting cast. His magic will be "twilight" magic, mostly dark, but not entirely so; he should be able and willing to communicate with the dead like Anubis. Virtually every death god or underworld deity is involved in the traffic of souls, both in and out of the underworld. Some, like Odin, actually practice necromancy.7 Others, like Hades and Hecate, facilitate it.8 Anubis is the ultimate facilitator of contact with the underworld through his service of mummification, which leaves behind the Ka, a mirror image of the deceased which can receive offerings from the family, including gifts of food and drink. Anubis takes his role of messenger for the dead very seriously. In Pyramid text the face and throat of the deceased must first take on the appearance of Anubis before approaching the board of judges. It is clear that Anubis speaks for the dead.9 The whole book is about what he does for the dead. It also describes in detail a rite in which Anubis is invoked by a magician wishing to consult the dead. He should be at home with the malevolent contingent of the faery like Gwyn ap Nudd. He should be able and willing to kill like Set, Sammael and Thanatos. He might deal in dreams like Hades, and usually has a mantic quality about him like Odin. He is often regarded as powerful, but may be the most reluctant to join in a fight for either side like Manawyddan and Mider. He also might be a shaman, able to effect magic elsewhere while in a trance; he usually finds ways to get information via spies or shamanistic animal forms like Odin who prowled the skies as a raven, or Tezcatlipoca stalking through the night as a massive jaguar.
Paradoxically, this dark wizard has the ability to heal. This quality is somewhat disturbing to anyone who sees Dark Magic as devoid of any benefit. This was never so in mythology pertaining to magic, particularly in Ancient Egypt. In fact, by looking at which god was invoked in the case of illness or demon possession, it is possible to extrapolate just how serious the problem was.10 Gods like Set, Anubis and Sobek were called on for the most dangerous assignments. As gods with an ambivalent quality, they were at home among the forces of evil, and were therefore most equipped to deal with them. Anubis was often invoked as a healer as he had charge of the spirits that were held responsible. Dangerous ghosts, called Bau, posed great threat to the living, but they were subject to a reprimand by their chief, Anubis.11 Odin is also a healer of men and animals. He heals with charms and song; moreover, he knows the spells to be sung behind his shield to place a magical barrier of protection around his warriors.12 Gods of death, dark magicians all, are powerful healers. Not just by virtue of the plants and potions they know, but also by their intrinsic understanding of disease and forces of chaos. They are marvelous at it. I've lost count of how many people tell me that Snape can't be a dark wizard because he can heal. Being dark has given him the knowledge he needs to deal with Dark Magic. He did it. He knows how it works. Ergo, he can fix it. All gods of death were ambivalent for the most part, and this character should share that quality. Neither good nor evil, he inhabits the shadows, a man of masks and mirrors and as elusive as smoke.
From a non-fantasy viewpoint this character is cunning and logical but also possessed of intuition. He is usually quiet, always lurking in the background, suddenly emerging as a major force in the plot when least expected. He may be the man who is almost draconian in his insistence on order and law, but quite willing to bend the rules if it suits him. He is inventive, thoughtful and wary. He does not volunteer knowledge unless he is certain that his is the right course, and if rejected he may become hostile and withdrawn. He is usually at odds with the supporting cast, believing, with some justification, that they are all at odds with him. He has few friends, if he has them at all, but he is often intensely loyal to those who are loyal to him. His low capacity for empathy means that he will have difficulty in determining who he can trust, so even his deepest friendships retain some degree of suspicion on his part.
In romantic relationships he strikes out. He builds his faÃ§ade around what he believes are social standards, and dating turns that upside down. But when he loves, he loves with violent intensity. Almost every Underworld god abducted and/or raped his consort. Typically, this character must be in control of every aspect. He likes to dominate and intimidate; and sadly, this tends to carry over into his love life. Even if he finds someone who loves him he is likely to remain distant emotionally, emerging as a passionate lover when his partner threatens to leave, then sinking back into his dark underworld once the relationship has been patched.
His interaction with children is difficult to predict. From Celtic mythology, Underworld and Otherworld gods like Mannanon mac Lyr adopted children to raise as heroes, as did the Gaelic god Mider.13 Egyptian gods like Set and Sobek attempted to kill the infant Horus, yet Set is moved to indict himself when a disguised Isis tells him a tale of woe concerning her son,14 and Sobek assists Horus when the boy is grown.15 Gods of death were regarded in most cultures as infertile, and the children attributed to them, like Hecate, daughter of Hades, were sired by other gods.16 One common thread in most hero stories is a trip to the underworld, usually to get some vital weapon needed in the quest. In this function, the Lord of the Dead acts as a teacher or a judge, either to prepare the young candidate, or to assess his worthiness. His lessons are hard, his methods harsh and frightening. But they are effective in strengthening the hero or heroine; a trial, if you will, that prepares the youth for battling ultimate evil.
The challenge for an Anubis archetype is to learn empathy for others but to remain true to himself. He needs to develop his masks for participation in society, but he desperately needs to find either a consort, or a part of himself that can act as psychopomp for others, initiating them into his life in a less forceful way than abduction. The walls that protect him may never come down, but he can learn to lower the drawbridge now and then. Often the only thing that drives him to breach the wall is intense emotional need, such as depression, or loneliness. It should be noted that Hades only left his underworld twice: to abduct a consort and to be healed from a wound that only Paean of Olympus could treat.17 In the same way, the character with the same archetype will emerge emotionally only if love stirs him, or if the pain of wounds that he cannot heal causes him to seek help.
More than an Archetype: Icon of Death
Alone of gods Death has no love for gifts,
Libation helps you not, nor sacrifice.
He has no altar, and hears no hymns;
From him alone persuasion stands apart.
When it comes to Severus Snape, archetype alone is not enough to define him. He is more that simply a man with the characteristics of a death-oriented archetype; he is the icon of death in the Potterverse. J. K. Rowling goes to some lengths to paint him in the colors of death. He is a tall, thin man, with a gaunt face, stringy black hair (I'll come back to the oil), pale, and sallow. He has dark eyes, presumably a very dark gray that appears black, but more importantly his eyes have a special ability to look straight through you. Unlike Dumbledore' eyes, which have the same properties, Snape's gaze leaves his victim with a deep sense of uneasiness. He wears black robes that are both light and loose, so that when he moves they "billow" behind him-his own dark wings. He has the unhappy habit of appearing suddenly, descending on his victims with a vice-like grip, and prefers to administer punishment in the comfort of his dungeon. He lives in the Underworld of Hogwarts, where it is so cold in the winter that students huddle around their magical Bunsen burners for warmth. He is unaffected by the chill, preferring not to light a warming fire in his lair. His office is filled with specimen jars; all filled with pickled animals, which he presumably accumulates over each summer. These act as a metaphor for his secrets and his emotions, which have been "pickled", degraded and compartmentalized, like so many prisoners in the dark fortress of his mind. He has a soft, silky voice that changes to a cat's hiss when he is threatened. We associated him in the past with Potions, the Dark Arts, and spying, and since Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, we have added murderer and healer to the list. Ironic, isn't it? And a perfectly acceptable paradox for Death.
Severus Snape is often a judge of other characters; and he is often correct, if unkind, in his verdicts. Like most Gods of Death he is unfair. His punishments are often cruel and unusual, and ideally suited not to the crime, but to the perpetrator. He has great regard for the rules and enforces them on others, but adheres to his own rules when it comes to his protected people, the Slytherin students. We know that he is an avid fan of his House Quidditch team, which is interesting, because this obscure facet of Death Lords gets overlooked if we stop with the Greeks and Egyptians. Crossing over to Mayan and Aztec myth we find the "Ball Game." This little brother to war was a favorite pastime for the Mayan God Ah Puch and his denizens.18 Even war is a game of the gods, and as the Lords of Death are assured a take, they are avid fans. And they cheat abominably. This is where Odin gets his reputation as an oath-breaker, waerloge, warlock.19
Severus Snape possesses magic that we associate with the gods of death. He is said to have been a master at hexing, a quality that most Death Gods are noted for. Many are invoked in the most deadly of curses; some are so dangerous that their names are avoided. Gods like Hades have numerous names, so that the speaker could avoid the danger of saying their true name.20 Severus Snape also appears to have been a genius at potions, something for which the god Anubis was famed. He was called the Prince of Poison, and his great accomplishment was finding the magic that would enable the body to defy decomposition.21 He is also invoked in love magic, particularly the charms that accompany the love potions.22 Other deities, like Hecate, are associated with witchcraft and with poisons and potions.23 One Potion that will forever be associated with Snape is the Draught of Living Death, in particular the ingredients mentioned in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Asphodel and Wormwood. Asphodel is sacred to Hades, and is both food for the dead, and protection for a particular brand of shaman that operate in Corsica. These dream-hunters harvest souls by night and function as death personified for their people; but they also fight each other for the protection of their villages, and when they go to war, they carry wands of Asphodel.24 Wormwood has long been regarded as toxic in itself, and has association with the entry of evil into the world. It is said to be the plant that sprang up in the serpent's wake as it left the Garden of Eden25 as protection against the return of the snake. Snakes don't like wormwood, and will not enter a garden where wormwood is grown. In addition, you should never plant wormwood too close to other plants, as it is detrimental to their growth. Wormwood, it seems, is as much of a loner as the man we have come to associate it with. Even the fictitious Sopophorous Bean has associations with the dead. Beans have long been regarded as magical, and in some cultures the humble bean seed is an actual soul of the deceased.26
Severus Snape is the only person, besides Dumbledore and now Harry, to have heard the Prophecy. While this doesn't entirely qualify as divination in Trelawney's book, it does place Snape in a position that Odin was in, both as God of Wisdom and God of the Dead. It is fitting, that Dumbledore and Snape, wisdom and death, respectively, heard Trelawney, and it is also equally fitting that Dumbledore, as wisdom, should hear the whole thing, while Snape, death, only has understanding of a fragment of the entire mystery. Placing Snape at the scene of the initial prophecy does give him a connection to divination; something that nearly every death god has in his magical arsenal. Odin practiced Seidr,27 a form of prophecy, he sought seers to give him direction, and like Hades, it is Odin who finds a way to talk with dead men.28
Severus Snape is never accused of sending nightmares or directed dreams; but at least Harry did pick up a connection between the hated Occlumency lessons, Snape, and the dreams. It should be noted that when Harry has to find answers to his dreams he is forced to turn to Snape. Hades, the Lord of the Dead, sent dreams to advise and to torment men.29 His death messenger, Thanatos, is brother to Hypnos (Sleep).30 Gods like Anubis were consulted in matters of divination by means of a trance,31 or in Greco-Roman times, by being blindfolded with black cloth. While Harry would never admit to having a trace of Seer blood in his family, and my instinct says that Snape would be loathe to admit it also, both possess the same uncanny ability to detect when things are not as they should be. Harry dreams. Snape interprets. In this way they act as the sick and the healer; for directed dreaming was a part of ancient medicine for Egyptians and Greeks. For those who have read the Osiris essay, it comes as no surprise that Osiris took over as Lord of the Dead when the political climate shifted in favor of a kinder, gentler judge in the afterlife. Anubis was first, and it was his knowledge and protection that enabled Osiris to succeed him. Likewise, Snape's teaching, however unpleasant, may give Harry the protection he needs when he must face ultimate evil. Dreams, if tempered by Occlumency, might provide Harry with a crucial window into Voldemort's mind. Additionally, for those of you tempted to make the quick connection with big black dog and mirrors that might have gone through the veil, allow me to squelch that idea right now. There is another jackal beyond the Shaman's gate that is a facilitator of a certain phoenix, and it's not Anubis.32
Now we come to the identifying feature of a god of death. He must be able and willing to kill. Severus Snape had proved beyond a doubt that he is capable of killing. As early as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban he asserted that he could, and in Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, he delivers. The gods of death are predators, and their game is the souls of men. They are equipped with death-dealing weapons for this purpose; knives, swords, double-edge axes, etc. They have a penchant for selecting cutting implements; it is perhaps not coincidence that Snape has a separate killing weapon from Avada Kedavra; the spell of his own creation, Sectumsempra. There are two other weapons wielded by death entities worth mentioning in regards to Severus Snape. Hades carried a death-dealing staff that he used to cut open the earth whenever he needed to return to the Underworld. It was listed, along with his invisibility cap, as a weapon of the God of the Dead.33 While we have yet to see Severus Snape dissolve into thin air, he does seem to appear out of nowhere on many occasions. Harry has to use a cloak. Is it perhaps possible that Snape, like Dumbledore, is capable of invisibility without one?
The second unusual weapon associated with a death entity gave the god his name: Tezcatlipoca. It means, "smoking mirror." 34 This weapon he carried in the center of his forehead, the same location one expects to find a uraeus of Egypt.35 Both devices signify royalty: princehood, and priesthood. The placement is not arbitrary. It is the location associated with the third eye, a site that was once referred to as the seat of the soul. It is often regarded as special intuition, and a source of magical power. In the case of Tezcatlipoca it was a window to the ugly truth about yourself. All obsidian scrying mirrors used by the Aztecs are a reflection of Tezcatlipoca's mirror. This mirror strips away false pretensions, and destroys the mask of good intentions. Looking into the fiery mirror was looking into your own soul, to see the darkness, the evil and all the illusions that the victim might harbor. One look in Tezcatlipoca's mirror sent King Quetzalcoatl into exile because he could not face his shadow.36 Anubis is often regarded as a shadow of Thoth.37 He is seldom shown with the uraeus, the fiery serpent and symbol of kingship, himself, but it is said that Anubis used the uraeus to kill the pharaoh when his time came.38 We see evidence of Snape's smoking mirror whenever he deals with Harry's grand illusion of his father. Snape tears away at this faÃ§ade in a way that no other character would dare. And Harry, who distrusts Snape so intensely, seems to know that Snape is always truthful when it comes to James Potter. Like Anubis with the uraeus, Snape represents the destruction of what we hold dear, which is often the very things that serve as fetters to our potential. Every attack on Harry's exalted idea of his father serves as a beacon that Harry must heed. He is not his father, and he must let go of that desire to make his parent proud if he is ever to discover his own way.
Earlier, I said I would come back to the oil. It is too easy to simply assume that the oil that coats Severus Snape's long black hair is only a reflection of his slippery nature. It happens to be a trait associated with Anubis in his role as embalmer. Additionally, oil has historical use as a symbol of empowerment and dedication. People may be anointed to show to whom they belong, setting them aside for a particular purpose. Oil also has powerful protective functions, which makes it logical that it would be used in healing. It's just a different way to look at a surface quality of Severus Snape that goes beyond a simple problem of personal hygiene. Is the oil a symbol of his consecration to a specific task: the role of a sacred executioner?
There is a term for such a man: pharmakos.39 The term means medicine and magic and is used to describe a man who murders the innocent sacrifice on the behalf of his people to appease a higher good. He is not innocent of his crime. In killing he disregards all moral codes, assuming the mantle of evil. But he does it knowing what he does. It is his sacrifice. He is hated and feared for what he represents. He is the shadow of the darkness in the hearts of man, the dark side of the god who demanded blood.
Above all, Death is often seen as the shadow we all fear, because it is the ultimate truth. It is our own mortality. As the shadow it is the reflection of ourselves that blocks the light. Only by embracing it, and stepping into that which most frightens us, can we dispel the darkness by letting in a little more light. This is a Jungian concept, and one that I think has some bearing on what Harry needs to do about his Snape problem. Harry is at great risk of ignoring his quest to destroy Voldemort because he will focus on his nemesis, Severus Snape. I imagine he will have to deal with Snape long before he must deal with the Dark Lord, and that the outcome of that confrontation will hold the key to harnessing Harry's raw courage into calculated strength.
The Lodestone: Navigating the Water of Speculation
There is a mill which grinds by itself, swings of itself, and scatters the dust a hundred versts away. And there is a golden pole with a golden cage on top which is also the nail of the north. And there is a very wise tomcat which climbs up and down the pole. When he climbs down he sings songs; and when he climbs up he tells tales.
Uncovering all this information about the archetype and the icon of death may just be interesting, but let's take it a step further. Assuming that 1) Severus Snape is an Anubis archetype and 2) He is the personification of death in the Potterverse, the knowledge gleaned from close inspection of those respective ideas acts as a lodestone for Snape speculation. The use of the word lodestone is not arbitrary. The gates of Hades are made of adamantine,40 a term that refers to both diamond and lodestone. In addition, Death is a god of the Northern sky, particularly the Great Bear constellation, and it is no coincidence that when Anubis opens the gates to the north, the north shaft of the King's chamber in the Great Pyramid was designed to point to the then north star, Thuban, of the constellation Draco.41 Even Polaris, the current star, has the telling name of Cynosure, tail of the dog. An old name for Polaris is the Jackal of Set. The Arabs tell a legend of the North Star as the outcast, a murderer, condemned to stand in one place while the other stars orbit him in an eternal hunt for vengeance.42 In the far north the star is called the North Nail, and seems to be central to the idea of the cosmic mill.43 It is the point on which all things hinge, the axis of the two great millstones of the sky and the earth, with the grist as the Milky Way. It's no coincidence that Severus Snape lives in the shadow of an old mill with a miniature Styx in his back yard, and if his death connections go deeper than the surface then we can use them as guide to answering the questions that swirl around the character of Severus Snape.
It was my intention to answer nine questions about Snape using the lodestone, a number sacred to the death gods, as they have the idea of birth and rebirth ingrained in their natures. Nine, of course, corresponds to nine months of gestation.44 Is it any wonder that Anubis and Set both were protectors of pregnant women,45 most particularly those at risk of miscarriage, that Sobek was a midwife,46 that Mictlanteculhtli presided over every stage of birth including conception,47 and that Tezcatlipoca was directly responsible for a statement like "You look just like your father?" 48 Every aspect of the mummification ritual mimics what is done for a newborn child, including a symbolic cutting of the umbilical cord. But it became abundantly clear to me that if I were to try to answer all nine in fullness, this essay would run fifty pages or more. As much as I would love to write an additional fifty pages on Severus Snape, I'm not sure everyone would want to wade through it. So, I leave the rest up to you. Use the lodestone yourself. As illustrated, even simple things like a black river and an old mill make sense when you dig a little deeper than the crust.
Or if you like, submit your own nine questions. I will be delighted to answer them in all the detail they deserve. But don't forget where my loyalties lie.
1. Bolen, Jean Shinoda, M.D. Gods in Everyman. New York: Harper & Row, 1989. p.98.
2. Schmidt, Victoria Lynn. 45 Master Characters. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest, 2001. pp.113-121.
3. Seawright, Caroline. "Anubis." The Keep. 8 October 2001. Kunoichi. 30 April 2006. http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/anubis.html.
4. Massey, Gerald. The Sign Language of Astronomical Mythology. Ancient Egypt-The Light of the World, Book 6. Whitefish: Kessinger, 2005. pp.322-3,330-1.
5. Bolen, Jean Shinoda, M.D. Gods in Everyman. New York: Harper & Row, 1989. pp.98-123.
6. Attwood, Tony. Asperger's Syndrome. Great Britain: Athenaeum Press, 2002. p.142.
7. Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1969. pp.140-157.
8. Atsma, Aaron. "Haides." Khthonios. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.
9. DuQuesne, Terence. Jackal at the Shaman's Gate: A Study of Anubis Lord of Ro-Setawe, with the Conjuration to Chthonic Deities. Thame: Durango Publications, 1991.
10. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt. Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. pp.42,73,141.
11. Ibid. p.39.
12. Crossley-Holland, Kevin. Norse Myths. New York: Pantheon, 1981. pp.14-6.
13. Squire, Charles. Celtic Myth and Legend. New York: Newcastle, 1975. pp.237,299.
14. McDevitt, April. "Seth" Ancient Egypt: The Mythology. 1997. Egyptian Myths. 7 Feb 2006. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/seth.htm.
15. Seawright, Caroline. "Sobek, God of Crocodiles, Power, Protection, and Fertility." Tour Egypt. 2003. InterCity Oz. 30 April 2006. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sobek.htm.
16. Atsma, Aaron. "Hekate." Khthonios. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April, 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Hekate.html.
17. Atsma, Aaron. "Haides." Khthonios. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.
18. Girard, Raphael. "HunahpÃº and IxbalamquÃ© in XibalbÃ¡." 2006. Esotericism of the Popol Vuh. Theosociety. Theosophical University Press Online Edition. 30 April 2006. http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/popolvuh/pv-10.htm.
19. Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. New York: Penguin Books Ltd. 1969.
20. Atsma, Aaron. "Haides." Khthonois. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.
21. Deurer, Richard. "Anubis." Egypt Art. 1996-2003. Deurer: The Gallery of Egypt Art. 3 Feb 2006. http://members.aol.com/egyptart/anubis.html.
22. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt. Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. p.90.
23. Atsma, Aaron. "Hekate." Khthonios. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Hekate.html.
24. Carrington, Dorothy. The Dream Hunters of Corsica. Great Britain: Orion Books, 2000. p.69.
25. Sinclair, Teresa. "Wormwood." 2006. English Cottage Garden Nursery. 9 April 2006. http://www.englishplants.co.uk/wormwood.html.
26. Carrington, Dorothy. The Dream Hunters of Corsica. Great Britain: Orion Books Ltd, 2000. p.118.
27. Crossley-Holland, Kevin. The Norse Myths. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. p.164.
28. Ibid. p.15-7.
29. Atsma, Aaron. "Haides." Khthonios. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/HaidesGod.html.
30. Atsma, Aaron. "Thanatos." Daimon. 2000. The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology. 30 April 2006. http://www/theoi.com/Daimon/Thanatos.html.
31. Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt. Great Britain: British Museum Press, 1994. pp.88-9.
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