"You leave the world that you're in and go to into a depth or into a distance or up into a height. There you come to what was missing in your consciousness in the world you formerly inhabited. Then comes the problem either of staying with that, and of letting the world drop off, or returning with that boon and trying to hold onto it as you move back into your social world again. That's not easy to do."
--- Joseph Campbell1
The Myth of the Hero
While some myths serve to anchor the rituals of society (such as marriage), or honor processes in Nature, the hero myth serves the inner path of each individual. The inner journey we each must face is reflected in the hero's journey. In his book, The Hero with a Thousand Faces,2 the mythologist Joseph Campbell illustrates a number of stories in myth that have focused on the transformation of an individual.
This transformation begins when a person, who is a normal part of his society, leaves that society and follows a quest. In meeting the challenges of this quest, the person is changed profoundly in some way. These stories are so compelling; as Joseph Campbell points out, we are not alone on our own journey, since the hero has already made it.3
The Hero's Journey
In these stories of transformation, there are typically several stages that the hero goes through; these stages are repeated in myths from around the world, and throughout history.4
The typical hero journey starts with the hero as a very normal, every-day person.
This person is somehow tossed out of his normal life, into a world where he encounters "power of the dark." 5 In the hero's journey, this wrenching from security into the unknown is not his choice. He is either taken there literally against his will, or goes willingly, but feeling he has no alternative (for instance, in order to kill a monster). This time of inner darkness shows that the hero is not yet in control of his situation.
While in this dark place, a teacher appears who gives him the tools or information he needs to continue his journey successfully. This teacher can take human or animal form, and sometimes acts less like a teacher and more as a messenger.
It is at this point that the hero usually realizes the purpose of his quest, the goal is he needs to accomplish; by continuing with the quest, the hero shows that he is willing to face any challenge presented to him. He faces many tasks that test him to his utmost abilities; he uses his innate skills and the information and tools given him by his teachers.
During this time, the hero may undergo at least one physical transformation, appearing in animal form. The hero eventually goes through a "supreme ordeal." 6 This ordeal can be likened to pottery being fired in a kiln, hardened and refined. This extreme experience allows him to integrate everything he has learned; he is ready to accomplish his goal.
The accomplishment of the goal may be the end of the story, or the hero may return to his community to help them, using his new strength and knowledge learned on his journey.7
Sirius as "Everyman"
To be able to appreciate Sirius as a hero on a transformative journey, it is important for us to see him in his early life as a normal person in less than extraordinary circumstances. We get to see young Sirius through Harry's eyes, from within the Pensieve in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.8 Within the wizarding world, he participates in the same type of life as every other wizard his age. Sirius is cocky and rebellious, has a close set of friends and big problems with his family. His thoughts are in the here and now, and his only interest is the next fun moment, with apparently no expectation of the dark inner journey he would shortly experience. At this stage, he is a very normal teenage boy.
A mythic hero, though, tends to be a normal person who has an extraordinary ability.9 This ability is inherent within the hero, not given by a teacher, and is one that he will later use on his journey. While Sirius is at Hogwarts having fun with his friends, he teaches himself to be an animagus. Shapeshifting is a very common skill for the hero to use.10 For a teenage boy to teach himself this skill, all in the name of fun, is, as Dumbledore says later in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, "an extraordinary achievement." 11
Tossed into Darkness
The transition of the hero, moving from his normal world onto the path of challenges and transformations, is usually very sudden and harsh. It often involves an event that is of the hero's own doing, but has consequences that destroy the life he knows.12
While still at Hogwarts, we know that Sirius is miserable at home. He makes the decision to separate himself from his horrid family and live with his best friend, James. Sirius is purposefully placing himself within a very normal family environment, so he has not yet set out on his journey. After leaving Hogwarts, Sirius continues to live a very normal life. He was part of the Order of the Phoenix, and fighting dark forces, but as part of an established group. He used his strong magical abilities for the good of his community, but Sirius had not been forced into his own solitary quest, where he would have no one but himself upon which to depend.
Sirius then makes the mistake of passing his Secret-keeper duties over to Peter Pettigrew.13 His world blows apart. His best friends are killed, and Sirius is charged with not only betraying them to Voldemort, but also directly killing twelve Muggles.14 Sirius' "mistake" may seem understandable to us, but from his point of view, he is completely at fault.
It is at this point that his inner life is shattered. This is a critical part of his journey. Sirius needs to have the inner conviction that he cannot return to a normal life. As is a common in the hero's story, Sirius is thrown into his journey against his will, even banned from his community. It is that which allows Sirius to leave the world he has known, and start on his solitary path.
At the time of his arrest, Sirius is completely passive, allowing himself to be taken away and cast into the hideously dark world of the Dementors.15 Therefore, Sirius entered this part of his journey as a mythic hero needed to, yanked unceremoniously out of his own ordered world, with all psychological frame of reference erased. He was overwhelmed by the emotional effect of the Dementors, his "dark forces' but was able to use his innate powers to survive. In his animagus form, his tormenters affected Sirius less; he was ready to be rewritten into something larger than himself.16
Sirius Meets his Teacher
It is usual in these mythic stories for a teacher or messenger to appear who is conscious of the hero's path, and intentionally provides the tools or information the hero will use on his journey. This aid is often what launches the hero on his quest. The interesting thing about Sirius' teacher/messenger is that this person not only is unaware of Sirius' journey, but he is Sirius' enemy. During Sirius' dark stage, the teacher who appears and gives him information is Cornelius Fudge. Fudge is not the image of the otherworldly guide who brings transcendent messages; if anything, he is seen as a bit of a bungler, an unwitting player who appears at exactly the right moment to launch Sirius into the next part of his journey. Fudge visits Azkaban, and leaves his newspaper for Sirius to read. This newspaper contains a picture of Peter Pettigrew, in his animagus form of Scabbers, on Ron Weasley's shoulder.17 Sirius realizes his duty is to protect Harry from Pettigrew, and escapes from Azkaban.18
The Quest Begins
"You leave the world that you're in and go into a depth or into a distance or up into a height. There you come to what was missing in your consciousness in the world you formerly inhabited. Then comes the problem either of staying with that, and letting the world drop off, or returning with that boon and trying to hold on to it as you move back into your social world again. That's not an easy thing to do."
--- Joseph Campbell, speaking of vision quests in The Power of Myth19
I believe the journey of Sirius can be seen as two intertwined quests; they are the physical adventure of the hero saving a life, and the spiritual adventure of the hero who is transformed inwardly. The physical quest is what allowed Sirius to be tested to his utmost, to push past any inner boundaries he may have had. The physical quest is the structure that frames his inner transformation.
Into the Depths
Hagrid lets us know the moment that Sirius' descent into darkness began. He remembers Sirius giving him the motorcycle, with the words, "I won't need it anymore." 20 To many people, a motorcycle represents freedom, and is a powerful symbol of the lack of boundaries or rules. How else would a rebellious, rule-breaking wizard travel but on a flying motorcycle, a symbol of his own emotional freedom? Sirius, though, in his grief, made the decision to avenge the deaths of the Potters, and go after Pettigrew. His grief turned into a desire for revenge. Revenge is a very dark, imprisoning emotion; those bent on revenge can think of little else. By giving up his motorcycle, he was turning his back on his emotional freedom, and entering a dark Underworld.21
Into the Distance
Sirius, in his animagus form, could have escaped his prison at any time.22 He was held there, not only by the Dementors' mental hold, but also by his own dark thoughts. Revenge is not a happy emotion; the Dementors could not drain it out of him. Sirius was left, as he said, with the thought that he was innocent, and the one dark emotion on which his mind had fixed.23 It was only the realization that Pettigrew was still alive, and living with Harry, that broke the hold the Dementors had over Sirius and pushed his own thoughts into immediate action. Sirius had no thought for himself at that moment; he was acting on instinct, something upon which the Dementors did not feed. His instincts were a mixture of protectiveness towards Harry, and revenge for Pettigrew's betrayal. Sirius was entering a stage on his journey where his animal nature would be at the forefront; from the time he escaped Azkaban until the night of his second escape from Hogwarts, Sirius would be acting on animal instinct, and appearing only in animal form, as Padfoot.24
Sirius' ability as an animagus to transform into a large dog and Harry's fear that he was being stalked by the Grim, a spectral dog,25 give us a solid base upon which to build the mythological aspects of Sirius' character. The Grim may not have been what Harry was seeing, but Sirius still carries attributes of this legendary British dog of death. Called by many local names - Padfoot, Black Angus, Pooka, Hellhound, Moddey Dhoo -, these dogs in the British Isles are all connected to the Underworld.26 Sirius, while hiding out near Hogsmeade, chose to live in a cave, symbol of an opening to the Underworld. The British spectral dogs are known also as scavengers; we know that later, Sirius lived off rats or the occasional kind handout to him in his dog-form.27
The Pooka of Ireland also has the attribute of being very mischievous, luring people into trouble for the fun of it,28 as apparently teenage-Sirius did with Snape. As Lupin told Harry about the Marauder's Map, "...these mapmakers would have wanted to lure you out of school. They'd think it extremely entertaining." 29 Something that the Pooka likes to do is offer to carry travelers on its back, but once on, the pooka takes them for a wild ride, dumping them off in a swamp or thorn bush, and laughing as it runs away. To carry people, the pooka can take various forms, including that of a dog, a horse, or an eagle.
Up to the Heights: Transformation
During the next year, Sirius' life as Padfoot was anything but fun and mischievous. While in pursuit of Pettigrew, his nature was not only perceived as the Grim by Harry and ourselves, but was focused on death. His goal was to kill Pettigrew and to save Harry. Although the Dementors do not imprison him, his spirit is still locked in darkness.
Sirius escaped from Azkaban on his own. The Dementors imprisoning Sirius were outside him; once Sirius' thoughts focused on protecting Harry, the Dementors were left behind, as well. Transforming his own dark thoughts of revenge would be a harder task, and Sirius would need the help of the only person who could reach him emotionally during this time---Harry. If Sirius was to continue on his own hero's journey, he needed to let go of his mental prison.
The night that Sirius captured Pettigrew, (in the form of Scabbers), we are taken into aspects of the story that prepare us for the miraculous changes about to occur. At first, it seems like a night of violence and death, with the execution of Buckbeak, and Sirius viciously dragging Ron into the Shrieking Shack. Then, Hermione takes herself and Harry back in time; our thoughts shift from a dark night to the renewed hope of a second chance. Time itself has been altered, and suddenly anything seems possible.
This shift in consciousness is part of Sirius' internal journey. Something must have happened before the shift in time, an act that shifted Sirius' consciousness. I believe this change started in the Shrieking Shack. Sirius had Pettigrew at his mercy. He was still trapped in his thirst for revenge, and he was about to complete his mission and kill the rat. Had Sirius succeeded in killing Pettigrew, his story would have ended there. The dark forces in his mind would have won the battle, and his hero-path would no longer exist.
Every hero faces this moment. He needs to make a choice between sinking back into the depths, or using all of his resources and taking the next step towards transformation.30 Usually at this moment, the hero receives help; Harry becomes the source of help for Sirius. On an emotional level, Harry is the only one who could have helped Sirius. The concern and love Sirius felt for Harry was seemingly the only other force in his mind or heart during his vengeful time looking for Pettigrew.31 Sirius would have killed Pettigrew if Harry had not stopped him. Harry realized that his father would not want to see Sirius transformed into a killer; at that moment, Sirius based his actions on his love for Harry, and chose not to kill Pettigrew. This act of renunciation released him from his self-inflicted prison, and readied him for his next step on the journey, his transformation.
In myth, the transformation of the hero is often not told in words, but is shown in images. These images are not possible in the world of physical reality. An object, element, or animal will possess qualities that show the impossible coming into being.32 In Sirius' journey, this image is the hippogriff. Sirius' transformation is intimately connected to the one who becomes his constant companion, Buckbeak.
Hippogriffs, Griffins, Horses, and Eagles in Myth and Legend
Sirius and Buckbeak share the experience of being connected to animals which combined with the eagle in myth and legend: the griffin (in Gryffindor), and the hippogriff. Putting wings on the bravery and fierceness of the lion to form the griffin gives Sirius' character dimensions that connect him, through the eagle, with Buckbeak.
Lions, horses, and eagles are three animal images that resonate powerfully within the human heart. Wherever eagles exist, they have been used in stories to provoke feelings of strength, power, and freedom from earth-bound constraints. In Celtic mythology, one aspect of the eagle is as a symbol of "seemingly impossible transformations." 33 Native North American mythology uses animals to inspire a human's spiritual growth.34 In these images, high-soaring eagles are guides for mustering the courage to accomplish great things. Their clear vision, used from huge distances, gives them the quality of having a clear understanding of events and facing all of life's experiences, including death.35
The image of the lion is one of the most familiar animal symbols used in stories. When we look at Sirius, we see the traits of the hero with the lion-heart. The hero who aspires to the qualities of the lion is well above the crowd; he is given an aura of royalty. Sirius radiates the classic qualities of the lion. Out of his heart pours strength, bravery, protectiveness, and nobility. We know that here is a true Gryffindor, one who is unquestionably prepared to act with courage and honor.36
Buckbeak as a mythic character conjures up images of Pegasus, the flying horse. There is something about the nobility, sensitivity, loyalty, and emotional empathy of the horse that inspires heartbreaking beauty and poetic feeling when given wings.
The Pegasus was born from the blood of the monster Medusa at her death.37 One of the stories of Pegasus shares elements with Buckbeak and Sirius. In the legend, the goddess Minerva looked after Pegasus, who was known to be very vicious to anyone who approached him uninvited. Pegasus allowed one person, Bellerophon, to ride him, as he possessed the golden bridle given to him by Minerva. Bellerophon went on to have many adventures with Pegasus, but his success at these adventures made Bellerophon arrogant. One day he tried to fly Pegasus all the way to Mt. Olympus, which of course the gods would not allow. Bellerophon was thrown off Pegasus, and crippled for being so foolish. Pegasus flew alone to the heavens, and was transformed into a constellation.38
The horse and eagle were combined in story during the European Renaissance to form the hippogriff, a legendary mating of a griffin (half eagle, half lion), and horse.39 The creation of the hippogriff in legend may have been inspired from the saying, "to mate griffins and horses' which was similar to saying "when pigs fly"; griffins and horses were thought to hate each other. The accomplishment of mating the two and producing a hippogriff, symbolized attaining the impossible: the idea that anything could be achieved.40 The hippogriff also appears in Persian legends, but this time the hippogriff is in the form of both a dog-eagle and a lion-eagle.41 I believe that this connection of dog, lion and eagle give Sirius and Buckbeak a common experience. The close bond that Sirius and Buckbeak develop could be enough to give Sirius the transformative energy that the hippogriff represents, but Sirius has hippogriff connections of his own. Eagle energy is working through Sirius from many directions: from Buckbeak, the Persian hippogriff form, and the forms the prankster Pooka can take, as dog, horse, or eagle. Buckbeak and Sirius are sharing a common transformation experience.
The Character of Buckbeak
In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, we see the characters of Sirius and Buckbeak as they were before meeting each other. They each have a strong personality that is similar to a specific animal. Sirius, until the end of Book Three, is seen literally as a dog, and often is mistaken as a legendary spectral dog of bad omens. When the two meet at the end of the story, something in their spirits merge; from that moment on, the mythical qualities of the eagle seem to be transforming their characters.
When we meet Buckbeak under the care of Hagrid, he is expressing most strongly the qualities of a domestic horse. Tamed horses are very loyal, dependent for food, emotionally sensitive, and nervous if something seems amiss, but still have a sense of pride and nobility. The only time we see Buckbeak's potential eagle nature during this time with Hagrid is through the haughty look in his eye, when approached.42 In his relationship with Hagrid, though, he is all horse. Buckbeak willingly allows Hagrid to lead him, he allows people on his back, and lets Hagrid slap his rump to get him to take off. His flight around the paddock is like a grounded horse's trot around a paddock. When he is confined to Hagrid's house, he accepts it because that is where Hagrid has decided Buckbeak needs to stay; Buckbeak even seems content, settling down next to the fireplace for a cozy nap.
While Buckbeak is outside awaiting execution, he senses danger, which is a very strong, embedded trait in horses. He is very nervous and skittish at that point; yet, instead of instinctively fleeing when Harry tries to lead him to the forest, Buckbeak resists freedom, remaining loyal to Hagrid. At that moment, he was still a horse, and had not realized his eagle nature.
Buckbeak, of course, required anyone who approached him to ask permission in order to come closer. Hagrid, who knew how to ask the hippogriff's permission, in effect gave the students in the Care of Magical Creatures class the "golden bridle." Draco, of course, was mauled when he approached Buckbeak presumptuously and disrespectfully.43 What I find amazing is that Sirius was never required by Buckbeak to ask permission in order to ride him. In that moment when Buckbeak was hovering outside the tower room, Sirius leaped onto Buckbeak's back without hesitation.44 They became one, refugees together on a quest for freedom.
The Escape of Buckbeak and Sirius, and their Transformation
The moment of escape is the moment of transformation for Buckbeak and Sirius. Both of them had made decisions that left them ready for change. Sirius' spirit had been freed by his love for Harry and his willingness to give up his quest of revenge. Buckbeak had also made a conscious choice to leave Hagrid, and follow Harry into the woods. Harry, by doing what he thought was right, had given Sirius and Buckbeak much more than physical freedom; his actions empowered the pair to leave all earthly constraints behind them. Their escape transformed their spirits into their eagle selves.
We first see Buckbeak changing into his eagle nature on the flight towards the castle to save Sirius. When Harry had first ridden Buckbeak, he was uncomfortable with Buckbeak's style of flying, rolling back and forth like a rocking horse as he flew. On the flight to the castle window, though, they were "gliding quietly' 45 like all raptors, including eagles, do. When he landed on the tower, Buckbeak was no longer a domestic horse who could fly. His eagle half was taking over; he was becoming a Pegasus with an eagle's attitude. He knew what needed to be done and was eager to do it, impatient to escape.
Sirius also shows abrupt changes while on the tower. At first, he is still showing the loyalty and protectiveness of his dog nature. He is concerned for Ron, and grateful to Harry and Hermione for freeing him. Suddenly, he is all eagle, his actions are sharp and immediate. "Black wheeled Buckbeak around, facing the open sky. " ˜We'll see each other again,' he said." 46 Sirius was fully ready to take off into the air. In spite of facing a very perilous, uncertain future, he does not say, "I hope we see each other again' he tells Harry, "We will see each other again." I believe this is the eagle's keen vision and broader perspective emerging in Sirius.
When Buckbeak and Sirius take off from the tower, Harry can see them by the Moon's light. Moonlight has always been perceived as being full of mystical possibilities.47 In a mystical sense, I believe Sirius and Buckbeak are fully transforming into their eagle selves. When, from Harry's perspective, a cloud moves in front of the Moon, the two refugees have successfully escaped, hidden even from the friendly eyes on the ground. Their transformation was now for them alone to experience. Until this moment, Buckbeak and Sirius were carrying qualities of the eagle in potential, but it was not yet realized in either of them. It took the two of them together to attain the impossible transformation promised by the image of the hippogriff.
Back to Earth
Sirius' transformation marks his highest ascent. He spends the following summer coasting, enjoying his freedom. His physical environment tells us how liberated he must have felt during this time. He sends Harry a message via a bright tropical bird. Harry imagines Sirius in a land of blazing hot sunlight, a place where he could not imagine dementors living, or being able to follow Sirius.48 Sirius and Buckbeak are safe and happy. Sirius, though, needs to take on the burdens of his journey. He descends back into the world of challenges.
The "Supreme Ordeal"
Once the hero's inner transformation is complete, he is faced with his hardest challenge: he needs to face old foes from his new perspective. This test has been called "the supreme ordeal." 49 It is the challenge that has the potential to conquer the Hero. This is the part of his journey where he is at his most isolated, receiving no help from any teacher or magical guide.50
Sirius' year at Grimmauld Place seems to be the hardest challenge he faces. He is in a situation that is oppressive to his entire nature. His lion-like boldness, Padfoot's joyful buoyancy, and the eagle's freedom are all kept tightly shut in. He is at the part of his journey where it is important for him to rely on a guide no longer, but to guide himself. Instead, Sirius chooses to listen to his guide (in the form of Dumbledore), and stay squirreled away in a place he hates. Since this happens after his eagle nature emerges, returning to imprisonment truly must have been an ordeal. Sirius starts to deteriorate emotionally under these conditions. He is sensitive to Snape's taunts concerning of his lack of boldness and bravery; Sirius knows that he is choosing to stay safe and miserable, instead of risking his life and being free. He is at a stage where he has not learned to incorporate his transformation into his old reality.
Since Buckbeak and Sirius shared a common transformation, we can understand that Buckbeak must also be suffering. To realize the potential of his wings, then be forced to live in one room of a dark, moldy house, must have been unbearable for him. Buckbeak's reaction to Grimmauld Place is not a subject upon which JK Rowling focuses much attention. We can see the effect it had on him, though, once he leaves and returns to Hagrid's hut. Dumbledore renames him "Witherwings." 51 Buckbeak had reached the greatest heights, only to be plunged into the darkest confinement. On Sirius' darkest days, he shuts himself up alone with Buckbeak,52 the only one who understands, and shares in, the misery of his spirit. In contrast to the relationship between the Greek hero Bellerophon and Pegasus, there was no arrogance on either side. They were true companions: first on the run, then imprisoned in a miserable house; the only ones they knew that shared the same fate. Sirius showed his utter lack of arrogance on his last day of life by tending to the injured Buckbeak, a loving, but menial task.53
The images surrounding Sirius on the day he died points to his death as being the fulfillment of his quest, his final transformation on this journey. Early in the Harry Potter story, Dumbledore tells us that death is the "next great adventure." 54 Sirius had made a journey from normal young man fighting earthly evils, descending into his own dark nightmares, realizing the true greatness of his inner being, to forcing his freed spirit to be bound in a place he thought he had escaped forever. On the day he died, he threw self-preservation aside to protect Harry. Sirius again entered life with a greater purpose: he fought in the battle joyfully, full of the exuberance of having chosen freedom, with all its dangers. His entire nature was at work in the world once more, ready to accept the next adventure, whatever that might be.
We may have a clue to the transformation Sirius experienced in his death, by looking at the death of the Celtic mythic hero, Llew Llaw Gyfes. The death of Llew and Sirius share a few strong elements. Llew Llaw Gyfes was a ruler who could be killed only under very specific circumstances. In order for Llew to be vulnerable to death, he needed to be found standing in a specific position, with one foot resting over water, and the other foot resting over dry ground. This symbolized that he was not actually in one sphere or another, but existed at that moment in an in-between world. Llew was always careful never to make himself vulnerable by standing in this position, but he was tricked by his unfaithful wife, and was shot by his wife's lover. At that moment, he transformed into an eagle, surviving the death of his body.55
During Sirius' stay at Grimmauld Place in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, he lived in an in-between world, as well. This house literally did not exist to anyone except those inside it. The house did not exist even in the physical reality of other witches and wizards, unless they were invited by the Secret-Keeper.56 The contrast with Llew's story is that Sirius was protected while in his in-between state, not made more vulnerable. He unwittingly made himself vulnerable, as Llew did, because of a betrayal. Kreacher purposefully injured Buckbeak, and lied to Harry about Sirius' whereabouts.57 Sirius was then killed by the family member Kreacher loved the most, Bellatrix Lestrange. When Sirius was hit by Bellatrix's curse, "[...] his body curved in a graceful arc as he sank backward through the ragged veil hanging from the arch [...]" 58
These similarities between Llew and Sirius show that, at the moment of his death, Sirius was completely transformed in body and spirit. The grace with which he died shows us that he was ready for the transition of death; Sirius may have experienced his ultimate transformation as an eagle-spirit, unfettered by all his earth-bound constraints.
We are not alone on any of our own inner journeys. Every generation has a hero with whom it can identify, the hero who resonates with the transformations happening within each of us. We each have places in our mind that are imprisoned and mired within dark impulses, as Sirius was. The inner journey of Sirius is part of who we are, too. We remember his path, and have a fellow traveler on our own.
1. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. pp.157-158.
2. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. p.172.
3. Ibid. p.151.
4. Brown, Richard. "The Archetypal Hero." Karma Astrology. Last updated Apr. 1, 2006. Richard
Brown. Visited Apr. 15, 2006 http://www.karmastrology.com/rek_hero.shtml.
5. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. p.181.
6. Brown, Richard. "The Archetypal Hero." Karma Astrology. 01 Apr. 2006. Richard Brown.
15 Apr. 2006. http://www.karmastrology.com/rek_hero.shtml.
7. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. pp.157-158.
8. Rowling, J.K., Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Press, 2003. pp.624-650.
9. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. p.173.
10. Wikipedia, "Shapeshifting." Wikipedia Encyclopedia. 16 Apr. 2006. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 28 Apr. 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapeshifting.
11. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.428.
12. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. p.51.
13. Rowling, J.K.. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.365.
14. Ibid. p.39.
16. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. p.151.
17. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.362.
18. Ibid. p.371.
19. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. pp.157-158.
20. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.207.
21. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. p.158.
22. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.372.
23. Ibid. pp.371-372.
24. Ibid. p.372.
25. Ibid. p.107.
26. "Death-Hounds." Death Central. 1998-2003. Monstrous.com. 28 Apr. 2006 http://death.monstrous.com/death-hounds.htm.
27. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, 2000. p.521.
28. Ottershome. "What does ot*ter*pu*ka Mean?" ottershome.net. (site under construction) 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.ottershome.net/ottrpka.html.
29. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.289.
30. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. p.101.
31. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.372.
32. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. pp.32-38.
33. Lionrhod. "Animal Totem Energies." SeriousSilver. copyright Lionrhod, SeriousSilver.com & Martrildonno-Wings Designs 1997-2005. http://www.serioussilver.com/totemenergy/eagle.html.
36.Corelight and Leslie Temple-Thurston. "People and Lions: Mystery and Mythology." 2006. Corelight. 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.corelight.org/lions/mythology.html.
37. "Mythology Guide: Pegasus and the Chimaera." 2002-2006. jalic LLC. 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.online-mythology.com/perasus_chimaera.
39. "Hippogriff-Hippogryph." Lady Gryphon's Magical Realm. 1999-2006. MythicalRealm.com. 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.mythicalrealm.com/creatures/hippogriff.html.
41. Dave. "Hippogriff." Dave's Mythical Creatures and Places. 4 July 2004. eAudrey. Visited 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.eaudrey.com/myth/hippogriff.htm.
42. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999. p.116.
44. Ibid. p.414.
46. Ibid. p.415.
47. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. p.53.
48. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, 2000. p.24.
49. Brown, Richard. "The Archetypal Hero." Karma Astrology. 1 Apr. 2006. Richard Brown.
15 Apr. 2006 http://www.karmastrology.com/rek_hero.shtml.
50. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991. p.167.
51. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Press. p.53.
52. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Press, 2003. p.516
53. Ibid. p. 831
54. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Scholastic Press, 1997. p.297.
55. Translation by Lady Charlotte Guest. "The Mabinogian." 2006. Mystic Realms. 28 Apr. 2006 http://www.lundyisleofavalon.co.uk/texts/welsh/index.htm.
56. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Press, 2003. p.58.
57. Ibid. pp.829-831.
58. Ibid. p.806.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Scholastic Press, 1007.
”””. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Press, 1999.
”””. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, 2000.
”””. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Press, 2003.
”””. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Press, 2005.
Bob Reeder the Irish Balladeer, "Irish Mythology." March 19, 2006. 2003 Bob Reeder and Blackthorn Records. 28 Apr. 2006 http://bobreeder.net/iemyth.htm.