1991 ’ As One Stand Together
He who has a thousand friends has not a friend to spare,
And he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere.1
As Halloween is first formally introduced in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, we find the Gryffindors in Charms class, with Professor Flitwick giving strict instructions on how to make objects fly. With Hermione showing up Ron by levitating her feather before everyone else, Ron's decidedly black mood and underhanded remarks towards her further estrange Hermione from both Ron and Harry.2 As she wallows in the bathroom, the rest of the school experiences a Hogwarts Halloween feast in the Great Hall:
A thousand live bats fluttered from the walls and ceiling while a thousand more swooped over tables in low black clouds, making the candles in the pumpkins stutter.3
True to any Halloween mystique, the appearance of a monster is at hand, as the feast is promptly interrupted by the inescapably-doomed Professor Quirrell, announcing that a mountain troll is loose in Hogwarts' dungeon. Inevitably, Harry and Ron find themselves fending off the troll, who manages to enter and accost Hermione in the girl's lavatory where she had been hiding, ultimately solidifying the friendship between the three of them.
While this introduction to Halloween may seem a bit soporific when compared with other Halloween events in the Harry Potter series, the crucial friendship between Harry, Ron and Hermione is a catalyst for many events that follow. Harry's dependency on Hermione and Ron's reliable companionship throughout Harry's years at Hogwarts provides him with not only indispensable partners to aid in his quest, but the beginnings of his first real family.
The importance of October 31st is apparent in Harry Potter as the date continually introduces noteworthy events that resonate with significant impact throughout the story. As Halloween holds significant cultural, religious and supernatural influence regarding the living and dead, it seems likely that many critical events in the Harry Potter series would present themselves on such an appropriately bewitching day. As expected, Harry often finds himself the victim of circumstance on Halloween, circumstances of much importance ’ some challenging, some thrilling and some devastating. Compounded by many other historical events throughout the series that have occurred on October 31st, one must inevitably draw parallels between them. This essay will focus on 31 October: on the critical events that have transpired on that day, and most importantly, how they affect Harry and prepare him for what lies ahead. It will also focus on how Harry shows that acknowledging death directly, whether causally in the form of a holiday, or when confronted with a mortally-jeopardizing situation, provides necessary indoctrination into the cycle of life itself.
Halloween, A History
Hark! Hark to the wind! ˜Tis the night, they say,
When all souls come back from the far away¦ the dead, forgotten¦4
While most known established communities in the world have developed some ritualistic activities honoring the dead, it has been long speculated by historians that Halloween began as a seminal feast and year-end celebration of the Celtic people. Over 2,000 years ago, in the areas that are now Ireland, the United Kingdom and northern France, the new year began on November 1st.5 Winters were associated with death, and the Celts believed that during this point of the year, the "boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred;" 6 in essence, the interminable veil between the quick and the dead could be breached and magic was at its most potent. 31 October is the night of Samhain, a pagan holiday, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth to commune with the living.7
By early 40 A.D. as the Roman Empire, and later the Catholic Church, dominated much of what is now considered the Western world, Celtic traditions were forcibly merged with other traditions to commemorate death and seasonal celebrations.8 By the 800s, The Vatican under Pope Boniface IV designated 1 November "All Saints' Day' a time to honor saints and martyrs, in an effort to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday:
The new celebration was also called All-hallows or All-Hallowmas (from Middle English Alholowmesse meaning All Saints' Day) and the night before it, the night of Samhain, began to be called All-hallows Eve and, eventually, Halloween. Even later, in A.D. 1000, the church would make November 2 All Souls' Day, a day to honor the dead¦ together, the three celebrations, the eve of All Saints', All Saints', and All Souls', were called Hallowmas.9
The arm of the church grew long, and began to influence not only Celtic tradition, but traditions on a global scale, including the traditions of Aztec peoples of northern and central America. Originally, their month-long summer celebration, what is now the modern-day el DÃa de los Muertos, was overseen by the goddess Mictecacihuatl ’ Lady of the Dead.10 After the Spanish conquest, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and after a time indigenous customs became intertwined with the Vatican-approved All Saints' Day on 1 November. However, these modern religious influences notwithstanding, death, along with the memories of those who died, is still honored and revered in a traditional way among the native peoples of the Americas.11
Halloween has subsequently become a fusion of ancient native rituals and Christian authority. What is especially important to remember about Halloween is that while this event commemorates the dead, it should not be interpreted as a fearful event, despite the morbid symbolism and current commercialism exhibited by its subject matter. The festive interaction between the living and the dead that Halloween represents is in an important social ritual for "recognizing the cycle of life and death that is human existence" instead of focusing on fear of death and the unknown.12
This transfiguration of the holiday is important in Harry Potter, for many significant events transpire on 31 October, and regardless of their unusualness, or severity, or Harry's trepidation towards resolving them, the experiences he gains from confronting these issues far outweigh the fear that must be confronted before he does so. The following sections will chronologically discuss these significant Halloween events within the plot line, and how they affect Harry and the impact it has on those around him.
1492 - Nearly Headless Nick
"This may sting a bit" said the cack-handed twit
As he swung the axe up in the air,
But oh the blunt blade! No difference it made,
My head was still definitely there.13
As the Gryffindors' resident ghost, one would find it hard to ignore the coincidence that Sir Nicholas De Mimsy-Porpington's (almost) beheading took place on 31 October 1492. Sir Nicholas, or Nearly Headless Nick, was sentenced to death for botching a magical dental procedure on one Lady Grieve.14 According to "The Ballad of Nearly Headless Nick' the axe was not sharp, and while a mere forty-five blows to the neck managed to kill him, it failed to fully separate his head from his body leaving him in a perpetual state of near-decapitation.15
More than an atypical fearsome ghost, Nick's genteel yet constant presence in the lives of those at Hogwarts is a reminder of the ephemeral state between life and death; his presence also shows us that fearing the unknown can have everlasting results. After Sirius Black's death in Order of the Phoenix, Harry confronts Nick, pleading with him for understanding of death and the afterlife. As Nick tells Harry,
Wizards can leave an imprint of themselves upon the earth, to walk palely where their living selves once trod. But very few wizards chose that path [¦] I was afraid of death. I chose to remain behind. [¦] I know nothing of the secrets of death, Harry, for I chose my feeble imitation of life instead.16
Nick's resolute decision to become a ghost further pains Harry, as he comes to understand that only those afraid of death will choose a life of perpetual indecision; Harry realizes, to his comfort and dismay, that Sirius was not afraid.
c. 1950 - The Knights of Walpurgis
The single clenched fist lifted and ready,
Or the open hand held out and waiting,
Choose: For we meet by one or the other.17
During an interview with the BBC in 2003, Jo Rowling commented that the Death Eaters, Voldemort's iniquitous supporters, were originally named the "Knights of Walpurgis." 18 This clever pun is a direct reference to Walpurgis Night, a northern European holiday celebrated on the eve of the feast day for Saint Walpurga, a nun who was canonized on 1 May c. 800. Rowling must have found some connection between her formative Death Eaters, and the holiday itself. Notably, Walpurgis Night, celebrated on the night of 30 April, is exactly six months from Halloween, and shares many similar characteristics.
It is said that on the eve of Saint Walpurga's feast, Walpurgis Night, witches and other paganistic folk can celebrate and cause mischief before being banished by the dawn of the following holy day.19 Because of Walpurga's great piousness and honorable deeds ’ she was known as an accomplished author and key collaborator in bringing about an organized system of the Catholic religion to Germany20 ’ she is honored by an annual feast on 1 May. Perchance Saint Walpurga's holiness drives back evil spirits in the wake of her feast, giving those who wish to cross the veil one final opportunity to do so on the night before her feast begins? For, similar to Halloween, Walpurgis Night began as a pagan holiday ’ those honoring nature and the seasons began hosting celebrations venerating the death of winter and rebirth of spring.21 It should be considered that while Halloween is known as a date for accepting death, Walpurgis Night to some has now come to represent mischief and bewitchment. How striking that Rowling would consider naming her most violent and cruel characters, those who wreak havoc around them by using death as a threat to those they wish to intimidate and are commanded by a man who has defied death multiple times, after this particular evening. It is indeed possible that Rowling was looking for a name that represented these individuals, and found a potential solution in the name of a holiday.22
Interestingly, as Rowling eventually used the "Death Eater" moniker for the Dark Lord's followers, it seems that the name Walpurga was still attractive to her. Sirius Black's mother, Walburga is now the namesake of the nun within Harry Potter. While the gentle and kind Saint Walpurga was known for her aid in progressing the Catholic church to embrace all the masses, learned and otherwise,23 Walburga Black is seemingly her antithesis, as she was most known in life as the acerbic wife of Orion Black, and mother to Sirius and Death Eater Regulus, who now lives on in permanent form in her portrait at number twelve Grimmauld Place, thoroughly and loudly convinced of her abhorrence of non-pure blood wizards.24
1979 - The Inception of Harry
A mighty flame followeth a tiny spark.25
It is important to note that Harry's conception may have also taken place on 31 October 1979. As it takes a fetus an average of 40 weeks to develop,26 Harry's birthday on 31 July 1980 would align accurately with this estimated conception date. His inception on such an auspicious holiday could be inferred as a sign that he is destined to be influenced by this day in the future. Additionally, as the veil between the world of the living and dead is believed to be reduced on Halloween, perhaps his conception is influenced by more than his parent's love for one another ’ but influenced by the spirit world as well.
1981 - Murder Most Foul
So huge, so hopeless to conceive, as these that twice befell ’
Parting is all we know of heaven, and all we need of hell.27
The 31 October 1981 murders of Lily and James Potter by Lord Voldemort marked not only the most significant event in the wizarding world to date, but also the key turning point of young Harry's existence. Through Voldemort's interpretation of the prophecy, Harry was chosen as his equal, and Harry's fate was laid before him. However, Lily's ultimate sacrifice for the safety of her child against Voldemort's murderous intentions invoked the deepest magic ’ love ’ upon Harry, and saved him from a fatal curse. The curse rebounded upon Voldemort, who was rendered less than alive and promptly vanished. The assumed elimination of Voldemort was met with much joy and little skepticism from the wizarding world, as most wished his annihilation permanent, even though it was not so.28
With James murdered, and Lily alongside him, Voldemort's lasting effects on Harry surpassed his scar and its requisite effects; while celebrated amongst wizards as "The-Boy-Who-Lived' Harry was forced to survive with his aunt and uncle, and his life with Muggles turned callous and unkind. Perhaps the biggest impact attributed to Voldemort on this most inauspicious Halloween was the immediate removal of Harry from a life he deserved amongst family and friends who loved him, to a life he endured among those who barely tolerated his existence. Harry's new life in Little Whinging was far different from one he could have expected in Godric's Hollow ’ yet, despite these hardships, Harry remained receptive to opportunities to attend Hogwarts and hone his magical skills, and most importantly, he somehow managed to keep his heart open for friendships he had been deprived of for so long.
1992 ’ You'll Be Next
Life is real! Life is earnest!
And the grave is not its goal;
"Dust thou art, to dust returnest'
Was not spoken of the soul.29
Just before Halloween in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Harry, fresh from Quidditch practice, and Nearly Headless Nick, looking troubled, meet by chance in the corridor and discuss Nick's recent rejection from the Headless Hunt.30 Argus Filch discovers Harry dripping mud from his robes onto Hogwarts' clean floors, and drags him to his office in hopes of making an example out of Harry's inconsiderate actions. Nick intervenes by inciting Peeves to destroy an extremely valuable black and gold vanishing cabinet by dropping it from a great height.31 Harry, indebted to Nick's diversion, agrees to attend his 500th deathday party on 31 October.32
Again, Halloween night the Great Hall at Hogwarts has been decorated with live bats and pumpkins "carved into lanterns large enough for three men to sit in." 33 However, instead of going to the feast, Harry, Ron and Hermione attend Nearly Headless Nick's deathday fete, where they are confronted by hundreds of ghosts, an orchestra of musical saws and the Headless Huntsmen themselves. Most importantly, we are also introduced to Moaning Myrtle, the basilisk's victim the last time the Chamber of Secrets was opened. As Harry, Ron and Hermione leave the party in hopes of catching the end of the Halloween feast, Harry hears the basilisk roaming the school through the plumbing in the walls for the second time and he quickly discovers its first victim. The Chamber of Secrets has been reopened; panic and speculation ensues.34
As the formula repeats itself, again some crucial pieces of information are learned during Halloween, and their presence and impact on Harry and the wizarding world are paramount. We are introduced to the vanishing cabinet ’ the self-same cabinet that leads to the ultimate demise of Dumbledore and the downfall of Draco during Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince ’ and to Moaning Myrtle, who later on in the book provides Harry with vital clues regarding the entrance to the Chamber, and who continues to play a significant role throughout the Harry Potter series.
1993 ’ Fortuna Major
Our greatest foes, and whom we must chiefly combat, are within.35
On 31 October 1993, the Prisoner of Azkaban, Sirius Black, makes his initial appearance. Harry is suffering from great disappointment, and a bitter reminder of his absent family, because he is not allowed out of Hogwarts to visit Hogsmeade village, as he does not have a signed permission slip from his guardians. As the rest of his classmates are off on a day's holiday, Harry has tea with Professor Lupin, where they hold a very important private conversation concerning Harry's fears about defending himself against the dementors. It is during this conversation that Lupin and Harry are interrupted by Severus Snape, who comes bearing a goblet full of smoking potion for the unwell, off-color Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher. Harry's concern for Lupin is more focused on the potion-maker himself than on his teacher's mysterious ailment; however, it should be noted that the cause of Lupin's illness is brought further to light in this interaction, creating much interest in what type of potion is needed that most wizards "aren't up to making." 36
As the evening progresses and students return from Hogsmeade for the annual feast, Harry, Ron and Hermione are again met with standard bats and pumpkins decorating the Great Hall, and a reenactment of Nearly Headless Nick's own botched beheading.37 After the feast, Gryffindor students find a chilling surprise at the door to their common room ’ the Fat Lady's portrait has been slashed, by none other than Sirius Black himself. Black is presumed to be hunting Harry, in order to kill him and thereby help Voldemort regain power. This Halloween appearance is the closest that Black has gotten to Harry at this point. Ron speculates that Black forgot the feast, and was expecting to find Harry in the tower. As the night progresses it becomes apparent that Snape assumes someone in the castle is aiding and abetting Black.38 This suspicious behavior ultimately dooms Snape to interrupt the moment when Lupin and Black finally corner the murderous Peter Pettigrew, and further compounds the loathing that Snape and Black feel for each other. These Halloween events are extremely significant, as they set the stage for the tense and confrontational relationship between Snape and Black, but also the loving and familial relationship that will develop between Harry and Sirius, his godfather.
1994 ’ I Did Warn You
How frail the human heart must be ’ a mirrored pool of thought...39
As 31 October approaches during Harry's fourth year at Hogwarts, the school is aflutter with the upcoming Triwizard Tournament. By Halloween day students have begun entering their names into the Goblet of Fire as potential contenders for this dangerous competition. After watching students from Beauxbatons and Durmstrang enter their names in the goblet, Harry, Ron and Hermione visit Hagrid in his cabin and discover that he fancies Madame Maxime, the Beauxbatons headmistress. Ron comments about the immense size of their potential children, and one cannot help but wonder why she is such a large woman.
Replete with bats and pumpkins, the Great Hall once again hosts the evening feast where the contenders for the Triwizard cup are chosen ’ Viktor Krum, Fleur Delacour and Cedric Diggory. To everyone's great surprise, Harry is also chosen as an unexpected fourth school champion. Harry is then confronted by Barty Crouch and Ludo Bagman, who inform Harry that, for better or for worse, he is bound to compete for the cup.40 It is at this time the deterioration of Crouch has come to light: "he looked slightly eerie, the half darkness making him look much older, giving him an almost skull-like appearance." 41 After Alastor Moody's clash with Igor Karkakoff, insinuation that Harry's inclusion in the event is rigged specifically to place Harry in grave danger42 and further skepticism of Harry's alleged innocence stirring up frustration between the participants, Harry finds himself overwhelmed with the thought of competing for the cup. Seeking solace in his friends, he finds only jealousy and disbelief from Ron.43
Harry's mysterious entrance into the Triwizard Tournament, and his naming as school champion on Halloween, is the crux of Goblet of Fire. This turn of events permeates the rest of the novel, as it is filled with the after-effects of this life-changing incident. Additionally, this Halloween night provides significantly decisive information on a multitude of other subjects: Barty Crouch's health is in question; Hagrid and the overlarge Madame Maxime seem to be striking up a very personal relationship, while Moody and Karkakoff establish that they have a strained and suspicious past relationship with each other, of which Moody is especially distrustful; and perhaps most disappointingly, Ron reacts with great anger to Harry's entrance into the tournament. While Harry is used to the quibblings of adults, and strange happenings surrounding him (Halloween or otherwise), the lost of his best friend and biggest supporter brings him the most frustration and sadness. Finding himself alone, facing a school filled with critics and naysayers, Harry's missing friendship with Ron is simultaneously motivating and devastating.
1997 ’ Veneration of the Reliquary
You say it is the good cause that hallows even war?
I say unto you: it is the good war that hallows any cause.44
Halloween is such a crucial date in Harry Potter, as it has simultaneously encompassed the death of Harry's parents, the beginnings of his friendship with Ron and Hermione, the opening of the Chamber of Secrets, the introduction of Sirius Black, and Harry's forced entry into the Triwizard Tournament. As the second wizarding war begins, it should be noted that Rowling has not mentioned Halloween specifically in either Order of the Phoenix, or Half-Blood Prince. While the previous four books are replete with Halloween action, it seems very odd that Rowling has suddenly appeared to abandon her most influential holiday. However, perhaps she is merely biding her time, before Deathly Hallows, and a potentially monumental Halloween event, as one can only speculate the presence that 31 October and Halloween may have in store.
While the name Deathly Hallows is certainly reminiscent of Halloween, hallows themselves can represent a variety of things. As the word "hallow" is an interchangeable term for "relic" in the Catholic faith, one possible deduction could tie hallows to Horcruxes, and the recovery of items once belonging to the Four Founders of Hogwarts.45 Relics, traditionally parts of a saint's clothing or body, are placed in areas of high renown and are "to be glorified and to be venerated by the faithful." 46 Not only do relics represent persons worthy of the highest respect and adoration, but in death, they also represent the type of life and pursuit one should follow for their own. These hallowed items are not limited to parts of a person or their private belongings, but may also include hallowed ground they trod in life. It seems fitting that Harry will actively seek out these hallowed items and places (such as Godric's Hollow), to vanquish Lord Voldemort, and finally, hopefully, restore his world from war to peace. Given past evidence in Harry Potter, it seems feasible that the discovery of one or more of the Horcruxes could take place on Halloween, the evening when the veil between those who are gone, and those who are still here is most transparent.
Could it also be possible that Harry will experience an interaction with the veil itself on Halloween? While the veil is thin, communication and communion with the dead is perceived to be possible. Could those in Harry's past, such as his parents and Sirius, reach out to him on this most auspicious day? If so, it is also possible that Lord Voldemort himself could seek to use the veil to his own advantage. Could the Dark Lord command the dead, and seek to raise his army of Inferi on this night? Halloween, with its infinite possibilities for both the living and the dead, will indeed hold a place of prominence in Deathly Hallows.
Be Not Afraid
When I was a child I caught a fleeting glimpse,
Out of the corner of my eye.
I turned to look but it was gone.
I cannot put my finger on it now.
The child is grown, the dream is gone.47
Two of the most criticized aspects of Harry Potter are the stories' ability to incorporate frightening experiences into the narrative, and their inevitable tendencies towards the supernatural. Halloween has long been criticized for unnecessarily upsetting children, and more accurately, parents. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, Harry Potter manages to successfully incorporate both the lighthearted and serious aspects of this holiday into its plot. While these Halloween events in the plot draw from the general wizarding theme of the non-Muggle world, and also from typical "supernatural" events that usually appear on the date of 31 October itself (presence of bats, pumpkins, ghosts, etc.), one additional unifying theory also remains ’ a healthy understanding of fear and death. Like most people who celebrated the original death-honoring holidays, like Samhain and DÃa de los Muertos, appreciation and acknowledgement of death is the primary purpose of these holidays, and a key to understanding life itself.
In an age where children are often overly protected in their exposure to fear-provoking things, it is all too easy to dismiss books like Harry Potter for including death scenes and dangerous scenarios. The world has transformed into a frightening place, and one can often be overly wary about their safety and place in the world. But as Rowling herself has said, "A happy child is not one who has never experienced fear or who has never been allowed to experience fear. [Fear] is a healthy thing." 48 To begin to understand fear and the many facets it holds, it should be confronted within a safe, healthy environment; it is critical for everyone, not just children, to learn to deal with death in a healthy and respectful way. Fear cannot, and must not be ignored. Again, Rowling states: "What then happens to the child who has been so protected that their age¦I mean how could a child grow to age 14 never having experienced fear, but let's say that were possible? It would be a destroying experience for that boy or girl the first time they felt fear." 49 Those who dismiss events like Halloween, or books and films merely for their mystical themes, do a disservice to themselves and those they influence. And as Rowling states: "People die, but do you care when they die? Do you absolutely have a sense of how evil it is to take another person's life? Yes, I think in my book you do. [¦] You see that is a horrific thing [and that] I have enormous respect for human life." 50
Halloween is one holiday that brings death close to home, but the message behind the celebration is often missed: fear cannot prevent death, but understanding death can prevent fear. These books, while construed as child-oriented in nature, are not only books for children, but for all. Adults can easily identify with the joys and sorrows from not only the adult characters, but from younger individuals like Harry, Ron and Hermione, as they confront their fears and face grave peril. Lessons of humanity and compassion can be learned here, for to address one's fears at any age is a great leap of faith, and one of courage, but to acknowledge one's mortality is an even greater leap.
The Next Great Adventure
Though this world changes as quickly as cloud-forms [¦] Over the changing and crowding, wider and freer [¦] Pain is not comprehended, love isn't truly learned. What death erases is never revealed. Only the song, across the land, hallows and praises.51
As each 31 October approaches, one can see that Harry will be subject to a variety of incidents ’ perhaps some heartbreaking, and some eye-opening. Using Halloween as a vehicle for confronting death, in either a comical or somber way, Jo Rowling has guided her readers into a world that can embrace the holiday not only for its superficialities, but to also dig deeper to find meaning and direction in life. As each 31 October departs, we watch Harry grow, develop better coping skills and a clearer understanding of the world around him. From the murder of his parents, to tackling mountain trolls and making life-long friendships, to becoming Hogwarts' fourth school champion, Halloween has inevitably proved a catalyst of development for Harry, and will continue to prove a day of reckoning, wherein our hero, and his friends, will continue to venture down an unforeseen road, ready to meet their fate.
1. Emerson, "Considerations."
2. Rowling, Sorcerer's Stone, 171.
3. Ibid., 172.
4. Sheard, "Hallowe'en."
5. History.com, "History of Halloween' paragraph 1.
6. Ibid, paragraph 1.
7. Ibid., paragraph 2.
8. Ibid., paragraph 4.
9. Ibid., paragraph 6.
10. Erichsen, "Day of the Dead' paragraph 4.
11. Ibid., paragraph 1.
12. Salvador, "What Do Mexicans Celebrate¦."
13. Rowling, "Nearly Headless Nick' 6th stanza.
14. Ibid., 4th stanza.
15. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 123’24.
16. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 861.
17. Sandburg, "Choose."
18. Rowling, interview by Jeremy Paxman.
19. Wagner, "Walpurgis Night' paragraph 7.
20. Casanova, "St. Walburga' paragraph 1.
21. Wagner, "Walpurgis Night' paragraph 3.
22. Coincidentally, it should be noted that Adolf Hitler, and several of his compatriots, committed suicide on April 30, 1945, bringing about a final conclusion to World War II. While it is pure speculation that Hitler planned to take his life to coincide with Walpurgis Night, the severity of misdeeds occurring on this evening further perpetuates its mystery. BBC News, "Final Witness."
23. Casanova, "St. Walburga", paragraph 1.
24. Lexicon, "The Black Family."
25. Dante, Paradiso, canto I, page 5.
26. American Pregnancy Association, "Calculating Your Dates' paragraph 6.
27. Dickinson, "Parting."
28. Rowling, Sorcerer's Stone, 1’17.
29. Longfellow, "Psalm of Life' stanzas 1’2.
30. Rowling, Chamber of Secrets, 123.
31. Ibid., 128’29.
32. Ibid., 129’30.
33. Ibid., 131.
34. Ibid., 140’45.
35. Cervantes, "Foes Within¦."
36. Rowling, Prisoner of Azkaban, 156’57.
37. Ibid., 159.
38. Ibid., 165’66.
39. Plath, "I Thought That I Could Not Be Hurt."
40. Rowling, Goblet of Fire, 277.
42. Ibid., 279.
43. Ibid., 286’87.
44. Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, 33.
45. Relics in the Catholic tradition were often garments or belongings of the saints. See Thurston, "Relics' paragraph 4.
46. Thurston, "Relics' paragraphs 2’3.
47. Gilmour/Waters, "Comfortably Numb."
48. Rowling, interview by Evan Solomon, part 2.
51. Rilke, Sonnet #19.
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Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. "A Psalm of Life: What the Heart of the Young Man Said to the Psalmist." In The Complete Poetical Works of Longfellow, edited by H. E. Scudder, 44’45. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1893. http://www.potw.org/archive/potw232.html (accessed 30 June 2007).
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Plath, Sylvia. "I Thought That I Could Not Be Hurt." Quoted in the introduction to Letters Home by Sylvia Plath: Correspondence 1950-1963,edited by Aurelia S. Plath. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. http://www.websnark.com/archives/2006/01/lesson_zero.html (accessed 30 June 2007).
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”””. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic Press, Arthur A. Levine Books, 1999.
”””. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, Arthur A. Levine Books, 2000.
”””. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Press, Arthur A. Levine Books, 2005.
”””. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Press, Arthur A. Levine Books, 2003.
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